3D Models:

The 3D models in VZAP are a new way to provide osteological information. They are designed to balance both the need for realism (documentation) with the need to communicate 3D morphological data (information language).

To increase realism, many of the models have been texture-mapped, a process whereby a high-resolution two dimensional image is “draped” over the three dimensional wireframe model. While texture mapping produces a full-color, photo realistic representation of the element, it is also critical for documenting low-relief textures too small to be recorded by the laser scanner (e.g. nutrient foramina, sutures, etc).

The texture-mapping process can unfortunately cause issues with the ability to see three dimensional relief. To increase the transmission of this information, we have <#added a glossy sheen#> to many of the models, which dynamically reacts with the rendered light source in the model viewer, increasing the ability to scrutinize surface topography.

*Note that ADOBE ACROBAT 9.0 automatically converts the texture images to JPEG format with 1024x1024 compression. If this feature of the software is upgraded to allow better resolution, our models will be adapted to increase the quality of the texture maps.

The three dimensional models available in VZAP occur in 3 resolutions, each with specific usages:

*Low resolution: Ca. 8,000+ polygons with a high resolution (1024 X 1024, 72 dpi) texture map. Useful for cursory inspection of the element to gauge overall morphology, comparing multiple elements simultaneously, or use with low-bandwidth internet connections.

*Medium resolution: Ca. 140,000+ polygons with a high-resolution (1024 X 1024, 72 dpi) texture map. These are intended as a realistic 3D representation of an element, with resolution adequate for detailed anatomical comparisons, analysis, and teaching purposes.

*Full Resolution: Variable polygon count depending on the surface area of the object and which scanner was used in the modeling process, with no texture map. Full resolution models provide the maximum three dimensional data captured by the laser scanner. These models are suitable for detailed analysis involving measurements, high-resolution morphometric comparison, and rapid prototyping. These models are very processor intensive, and are best viewed on computers with a graphics accelerator chip.

For more information on the scanning process, please see:

Virtualization Process

Idaho State University Canadian Museum of Civilization Informatic Research Institute Idaho Virtualization Laboratory Idaho Museum of Natural History National Science Foundation HITZ Foundation Port Townsend Marine Science Center Sitka Sound Science Center Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers ARC-0808933 and ARC-1023321. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.